Historical Geography Datasets

Reference and contact details: GB 1956 Historical Geography
Title: Historical Geography Datasets
Dates of Creation: 1998-2001
Held at: History Data Service, UK Data Archive, University of Essex
Extent: [databases]
Name of Creator: History Data Service
Language of Material: English.
Level of Description: fonds

Administrative/Biographical History

Study Number 3678, and 3706-3709: Great Britain Historical Database, Labour Markets Database: The Great Britain Historical Database has been assembled as part of the ongoing Great Britain Historical GIS Project. The project aims to trace the emergence of the north-south divide in Britain and to provide a synoptic view of the human geography of Britain at sub-county scales.

Study Number 3820: Enclosure, Rating, Drainage and Sanitary Maps of England and Wales in Public Archives, 1598-1936: The aims of the project were:

  • To ascertain how many enclosure, parochial assessment, drainage and sanitary maps survive in England and Wales.
  • To analyse their cartographic characteristics, including scale, date and mapmaker.
  • To analyse the way in which central and local government and their agencies used maps as instruments with which to implement policy relating to the ownership, use and taxation of land.
  • To analyse regional and temporal variations in the coverage of England and Wales by various types of map.
  • To obtain data on historic parish and township boundaries in England and Wales.

Study Number 4086: Peasant Land Market in Southern England, 1260-1350: The main aims of this research project were:

  • To collect information relating to the peasant land market on the estates of the bishopric of Winchester in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
  • To determine the number and variety of transactions in land on these estates and their fluctuations over time, in order to provide important information about medieval rural society.
  • To resolve whether individual property rights in southern England were well developed in this period or whether they were circumscribed by seigneurial interference and custom.

Study Number 4096 to 4099: Digest of Welsh Historical Statistics: This machine-readable version of John Williams' Digest of Welsh Historical Statistics is the result of a collaboration between the Statistical Directorate of the National Assembly for Wales, the History Data Service and the Centre for Data Digitisation and Analysis at Queen's University Belfast.John Williams' Digest of Welsh Historical Statistics is intended to provide a service for those working on the history of modern Wales. It arises from a belief that the quantitative element is a necessary and important part of the historical record; from an awareness that it was an aspect that was particularly inaccessible for scholars of Welsh history; and from a conviction that some encouragement in the use of quantitative material was necessary. It is modelled on the two volumes dedicated to British historical statistics: Mitchell, B.R. and Deane, P. (1962) Abstract of British historical statistics and Mitchell, B.R. and Jones, H.G. (1971) Second abstract of British historical statistics.

Study Number 4132: Thame, Oxfordshire in the Seventeenth Century: The aim of this project was to produce a social and economic history of the town of Thame, Oxfordshire in the seventeenth century, with special emphases on the way in which local families controlled the town's economy and on the connections between agriculture and the trades of the town. A biographical dictionary is being prepared in addition to the database and this has involved some family reconstitution.

Study Number 4154: Large-scale commercial farming in South East England. 1941, 1978, 1981, 1998-99: The overall aim of the research was to assess the influence of changes in agricultural policy and regulation on those farms which, during the productivist era, their operators had successfully navigated to a position of dominance in the industry. Four specific objectives arose from this broad aim, which sought to examine large-scale commercial farming overall and to track development and succession on individual matched farms:

  • To investigate how farms, which were relatively large in 1977, subsequently developed during the period of agricultural policy adjustment in the 1980s/1990s.
  • To examine the dynamics of agricultural production systems in relation to the development of large-scale farm businesses between 1941 and the late 1990s.
  • To investigate the opinions and responses of these large-scale farmers to agricultural policy adjustment with the intention of establishing their level of engagement with post-productivity policy measures.
  • To contribute to the development of large-scale farm businesses in the light of the post-productivist transition model of farm business adjustment and agri-environmental change.
  • The data file for 1978 and 1981 for this study contains a subset of the variables from part of the dataset 'Labour and Machinery on Large Arable Farms, 1978-1980', held at the UK Data Archive under SN:1872.

Study Number 4171: Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516 - Derbyshire, Rutland, Somerset, Worcestershire and Yorkshire: England's legally established markets and fairs underpinned one of the densest networks of trade in medieval Europe. The spread of those market institutions, which in England were well established by the eleventh century and then proliferated up to the fourteenth, is a key indicator of the development of a commercial society, and also throws light on patterns of settlement, economic specialisation, and the exercise of power. Yet, until now, work has been focused on individual county studies - which vary widely in content and quality - and no comprehensive national catalogue of markets and fairs has been compiled. The project aimed to create a gazetteer of markets and fairs in England and Wales from c.700 to 1516 by collecting from various printed sources all evidence of enrolled grants and identifying prescriptive markets and fairs.

Study Number 4348: Historic Parishes of England and Wales: an Electronic Map of Boundaries before 1850 with a Gazetteer and Metadata: This research project aimed to fill a major lacuna militating against the effective exploitation of many post-medieval to mid-Victorian historical sources collected by local administrative areas: the lack of information on the boundaries of those administrative areas, the so-called 'historic' or 'ancient' parishes of England and Wales. It is known that these districts came into being during the Middle Ages, that the map of these ecclesiastical parishes was essentially complete by the fifteenth century, that these ecclesiastical boundaries were adopted during the early modern period for secular and judicial purposes, and that boundaries remained essentially unchanged until a number of reforms from the mid-nineteenth century onwards reorganised the local administrative geography of the country. The project aimed to reconstruct those boundaries as they were before the post-nineteenth century changes.

Scope and Content

Study Number 3678, and 3706-3709: Great Britain Historical Database, Labour Markets Database: The Great Britain Historical Database is a large database of British nineteenth and twentieth-century statistics. Where practical the referencing of spatial units has been integrated, data for different dates have been assembled into single tables. The Great Britain Historical Database currently contains:

  • Statistics from the 1861 Census and the Registrar General's reports, 1851-1861
  • Employment statistics from the census, 1841-1931
  • Demographic statistics from the census, 1841-1931
  • Mortality statistics from the Registrar General's reports, 1861-1920
  • Marriage statistics from the Registrar General's reports, 1841-1870
  • Trade union statistics for the Amalgamated Society of Engineers (ASE), 1851-1918
  • Trade union statistics for the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners (ASCJ), 1863-1912
  • Official poor law statistics, 1859-1915 and 1919-1939
  • Wage statistics, 1845-1906
  • Hours of work statistics, 1900-1913
  • Small debt statistics from county courts, 1847-1913 and 1938

Included in the Historical Geography Datasets may be found the following:

  • Study Number 3678: Geographical Units and Change, 1888 to 1973.
  • Study Number 3706: Census Statistics, Employment, 1841 to 1931.
  • Study Number 3707: Census Statistics, Demography, 1841 to 1931.
  • Study Number 3708: Vital Statistics, Mortality Statistics, 1851 to 1920.
  • Study Number 3709: Vital Statistics, Marriage Statistics, 1841 to 1870.

Study Number 3820: Enclosure, Rating, Drainage and Sanitary Maps of England and Wales in Public Archives, 1598-1936: The dataset covers all the enclosure, parochial assessment, drainage and sanitary maps of England and Wales which were available for public consultation at the time of data collection (1993-1997). For all maps, the date of the map, its scale, its centroid on the National Grid, its dimensions, its maker (where known) and all details as to the types of information (boundaries, communications, settlement, land use, water features, public boundaries, cadastral information) contained on each map are recorded. It is possible to analyse the data by late nineteenth century county, by date and by type of map.

Study Number 4086: Peasant Land Market in Southern England, 1260-1350: The data consist of a complete transcription/translation of all entry and marriage fines recorded in the 73 pipe rolls of the bishopric of Winchester between 1262/3 and 1348/9. These annual account rolls for the estate of the bishopric of Winchester include details of entry and marriage fines paid by manorial tenants for some 60 manors spread over Hampshire, Somerset, Wiltshire, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Surrey. The tenants were required to pay an entry fine every time a change in land tenancy occurred, and they were required to pay a marriage fine every time an unfree female tenant wished to marry.

In each case a record was made showing the name(s) of the incoming tenant(s); the name(s) of the previous tenant(s); the relationship(s) (if any) between the various parties involved in the transaction; the amount and type of land being transferred; the location of that land; the amount paid to the bishop as entry fine; any noteworthy circumstances surrounding the transfer; and any conditions under which the transfer was said to have taken place, including stipulations made by the bishop. Other information relating to the tenants, including the payment of court fines (recorded in detail only for the years 1282-1303), the payment of heriots, fines of manumission, permission to migrate and commutation of labour services, were sampled. The published pipe roll of 1301/2 was employed to provide illustrative and contextual material. Some sources of secondary importance (most notably a collection of thirteenth-century custumals, which survive for about 35 of the bishopric's manors) were used to augment the information found in the pipe rolls.

The manors covered by the pipe rolls are: Alresford Borough; Adderbury; Alresford; Ashmansworth; Alverstoke; Beauworth; Bishops Fonthill; Burghclere; Brighstone; Bishops Hull; Bishopstoke; Billingbear; Bishopstone; Brockhampton; Brightwell; Bishops Sutton; Bitterne; Bishops Waltham; Bentley; Cams; Calbourne; Cheriton; Corfe; Crawley; Culham; Cove; Downton Borough; Downton; Droxford; East Meon Church; Ecchinswell; East Knoyle; East Meon; Esher; Fareham; Farnham; Fulford; Francheville; Gosport; Hambledon; Hindon Borough; Highclere; Holway; Havant; Harwell; Ivinghoe; Kingston St Mary; Kingston St Mary and Nailsbourn; Legh Militis; Merdon; Mill Lane; Morton; Marwell; Nailsbourne; Newtown; North Waltham; Overton Borough; Otterford; Overton; Poundisford; Ringwood; Rimpton; Sandleford; Southwark; Staplegrove; Southwell; Taunton; Taunton Borough; Trull and Bishops Hull; Trull; Twyford; Upton; Warfield; Witney Borough; Woodhay; Wargrave; Wield; Waltham St Lawrence; Witney; Wolvesey; West Wycombe.

Study Number 4096 to 4099: Digest of Welsh Historical Statistics: The main tables are:

  • Occupations, 1801-1971
  • Occupations by sex, by county, 1801-1971
  • Employment. Estimated number of insured employees (employed and unemployed), by sex and industry, 1939-1974
  • Number and percentage of unemployed, by sex, 1923-1975
  • Unemployment: vacancies unfilled, by sex, 1949-1974
  • Unemployment by age groups, duration and sex, 1935-1940, 1946-1976
  • Number of persons placed in employment by employment exchanges and youth employment services, 1948-1974
  • Number of Trades Councils and number of Trade Union members represented, 1894-1924
  • Total number of workpeople affected by, and days lost through, industrial disputes, 1891-1913
  • Industrial disputes by industry, 1897-1974

Included in the Historical Geographical Datasets are the following:

  • Study Number 4096: Agriculture, 1811 to 1975.
  • Study Number 4097: Coal, 1780 to 1975.
  • Study Number 4098: Iron and Steel, 1740 to 1974.
  • Study Number 4099: Lead, Copper, Slate and Other Minerals, 1804 to 1974.

Study Number 4132: Thame, Oxfordshire in the Seventeenth Century: The Thame History Group has transcribed and made available a range of documents for seventeenth century Thame including wills, inventories, parish registers, hearth tax records, rentals, Civil War assessments, school accounts, lay subsidy returns, frankpledge court rolls, poor rate books, quarter session records and monumental inscriptions in the parish church.

The database consists of a series of tables corresponding to the different sources used, a table holding surnames with information on spelling variations and family groupings, a table holding surnames, occupations and occupation codes, one holding status and status codes, and a table holding bibliographic information about the sources used.

Study Number 4154: Large-scale commercial farming in South East England. 1941, 1978, 1981, 1998-99: The dataset comprises a series of files relating to large-scale farms in the South East of England, which are defined by reference to their total area as either 182 hectares or more in 1941 and/or 300 hectares or more in 1978. One data file comprises a transcription of mainly quantitative elements of the National Farm Survey records of 1941-1943, and includes information relating to farm area, crop and livestock production, labour and machinery usage and an assessment of the physical and managerial condition of the farm. The data file for the 1978 and 1981 surveys cover a similar range of information relating to farm area, crop and livestock production, and labour and machinery usage, though the 1981 survey is more limited. The data file for the most recent survey, carried out between November 1998 and April 1999, also includes a similar range of agricultural variables together with information about farmer involvement with a range of non-agricultural activities and other contemporary issues affecting agriculture. These cover government conservation schemes, diversification, contracting, succession and use of information technology. The 1998-1999 survey includes both factual and attitudinal responses.

Study Number 4171: Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516 - Derbyshire, Rutland, Somerset, Worcestershire and Yorkshire: The Gazetteer contains more information than even the most comprehensive county studies for England; there is no comparable study for Wales. For England, it contains information for some 2,131 places with a market and/or a fair, and 2,045 markets and 2,489 fairs, whereas for Wales there are 138 places that had a market and/or a fair, with a total of 78 markets and 132 fairs. It aims to provide as much information as possible regarding the establishment and operation of markets and fairs from c.700 onwards. The material becomes increasingly detailed from the eleventh century onwards, with the most detail for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. At this stage data is only available for the five counties, Derbyshire, Rutland, Somerset, Worcestershire and Yorkshire, which have been fully checked and edited. Data for the remaining thirty-four counties will be made available when editing is completed.

Study Number 4348: Historic Parishes of England and Wales: an Electronic Map of Boundaries before 1850 with a Gazetteer and Metadata: The digitised maps cover the whole of England and Wales, and are organised by Ordnance Survey Sheet number. The maps contain a scanned bitmap image of the Ordnance Survey one inch to one mile (1:63,360) New Popular Edition maps (1945-8) with National Grid. They contain the boundaries of some 18,233 places, and are arranged as three electronic 'layers'. The first is a scan of the Ordnance Survey maps stored as grey tone sheet images. This enables Ordnance Survey physical, cultural and place-name content to be readily visible in the background for orientation and general location purposes, while not obscuring the added boundary and reference number material. The second layer consists of the boundaries, stored as solid red lines; and the third layer contains the reference numbers that link places on the map to the gazetteer/metadata dataset that accompanies the maps.

System of Arrangement

Study Number 3678, and 3706-3709: Great Britain Historical Database, Labour Markets Database: Includes:

  • Study Number 3678: Geographical Units and Changes, 1888-1973 contains one tab delimited text file.
  • Study Number 3706: Census Statistics, Employment, 1841-1931, contains six tab delimited text files.
  • Study Number 3707: Census Statistics, Demography, 1841-1911 - contains six tab delimited text files.
  • Study Number 3708: Vital Statistics, Mortality Statistics, 1851-1920, contains four tab delimited text files.
  • Study Number 3709: Vital Statistics, Marriage Statistics, 1841-1870, contains four tab delimited text files.

Study Number 3820: Enclosure, Rating, Drainage and Sanitary Maps of England and Wales in Public Archives, 1598-1936: contains one tab delimited text file.

Study Number 4086: Peasant Land Market in Southern England, 1260-1350: contains fourteen tab delimited text files.

Study Number 4096 to 4099: Digest of Welsh Historical Statistics: The following are included in the Historical Geography Datasets:

  • Study Number 4096: Agriculture, 1811 to 1975, contains one hundred tab delimited text files with one worksheet.
  • Study Number 4097: Coal, 1780 to 1975, contains thirty-four tab delimited text files with one worksheet.
  • Study Number 4098: Iron and Steel, 1740 to 1974, contains thirteen tab delimited text files with one worksheet.
  • Study Number 4099: Lead, Copper, Slate and Other Minerals, 1804 to 1974, contains seventeen tab delimited text files with one worksheet.

Study Number 4132: Thame, Oxfordshire in the Seventeenth Century: contains thirty tab delimited text files.

Study Number 4154: Large-scale commercial farming in South East England. 1941, 1978, 1981, 1998-99: contains three Excel 5.0 data files, two MS Word 97 documentation files, and a hard copy of questionnaire from 1941 National Farm Survey, all rendered into CSV files and Portable Document Format (PDF).

Study Number 4171: Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516 - Derbyshire, Rutland, Somerset, Worcestershire and Yorkshire: contains thirty-one Idealist v3.0 (31 files) or three tab delimited text files.

Study Number 4348: Historic Parishes of England and Wales: an Electronic Map of Boundaries before 1850 with a Gazetteer and Metadata: contains Adobe Acrobat PDF (173 files) OR Adobe Illustrator (173 files) AND Adobe Acrobat (1 file) OR Tab delimited text (1 file).

Custodial History

At various dates depositors placed their material with the History Data Service, UK Data Archive.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Study Number 3678, and 3706-3709: Great Britain Historical Database, Labour Markets Database: Southall, H.R., University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Geography; Gilbert, D.R., University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Geography; Gregory, I., University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Geography; Sponsored by: Economic and Social Research Council (Grant Number R000221314), Leverhulme Trust, Nuffield Foundation Population Investigation Committee.

Study Number 3820: Enclosure, Rating, Drainage and Sanitary Maps of England and Wales in Public Archives, 1598-1936: Kain, R.J.P., University of Exeter, Department of Geography; Oliver, R.R., University of Exeter, Department of Geography. Sponsored by: Economic and Social Research Council. Grand Number: R000233621.

Study Number 4086: Peasant Land Market in Southern England, 1260-1350: Page, M., Hampshire Record Office. Sponsored by: Economic and Social Research Council. Grant Number: R000236499.

Study Number 4096 to 4099: Digest of Welsh Historical Statistics: Williams, J., University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, Department of Economics, National Assembly for Wales, Statistical Directorate; University of Essex, History Data Service; Queen's University of Belfast, Centre for Data Digitisation and Analysis; Sponsored by: Higher Education Funding Councils, Joint Information Systems Committee.

Study Number 4132: Thame, Oxfordshire in the Seventeenth Century: For the Thame History Project - Bell, J., Bell, M., Bretherton, D., Cray, J., Fickling, H., Grof, L., Hammond, D., Hawkins, A., Hodges, M., Motla, P., Williams, P. Sponsored by Thame Town Council.

Study Number 4154: Large-scale commercial farming in South East England. 1941, 1978, 1981, 1998-99: Walford, N.S., Kingston University, School of Geography. Sponsored by: Economic and Social Research Council. Grant Number: R000222512.

Study Number 4171: Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516 - Derbyshire, Rutland, Somerset, Worcestershire and Yorkshire: Keene, D., University of London, Institute of Historical Research, Centre for Metropolitan History; Letters, S., University of London, Institute of Historical Research, Centre for Metropolitan History. Sponsored by: Economic and Social Research Council. Grant Number: R000237395.

Study Number 4348: Historic Parishes of England and Wales: an Electronic Map of Boundaries before 1850 with a Gazetteer and Metadata: Kain, R.J.P., University of Exeter, School of Geography and Archaeology; Oliver, R.R., University of Exeter, School of Geography and Archaeology. Sponsored by: Economic and Social Research Council. Grant Number: R000222312.

Access Conditions

By written application to the History Data Service. A letter of introduction may be required and prospective users will be obliged to sign an undertaking outlining the terms and conditions of access to the research materials.

Copyright/Reproduction

No part of the History Data Service material may be reproduced, published, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the HDS.

Finding Aids

A collection level record for all materials in the Historical Geography collection is available via the History Data Service's online Browse Collections web page http://hds.essex.ac.uk/studybrowse/search.php?type=2&term=historical%20geography.

Archivist's Note

This record was compiled by David Borg-Muscat, UK Data Archive.

Record entered by Nadeem Ahmad of Qualidata, UK Data Archive, University of Essex.