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GB 186 T - Trevelyan Family Papers

Walter Calverley Trevelyan Papers

Reference Number(s)GB 186 WCT
Dates of Creation1758-1951
Language of Material English.
Physical Description 45 linear metres [The papers were recently conserved which increased the physical size of the collection]

Scope and Content

The Walter Calverley Trevelyan Papers are the largest of the Trevelyan papers and have the widest subject coverage. The papers consist of a large amount of correspondence of a personal and family nature and also from a wide diversity of people known by the Trevelyans. There are also travel journals (1812-1866), diaries (1820-1823, 1847-1878), printed and miscellaneous material, photographs, sketch books and botanical specimens.

The papers include material covering an array of subjects such as botany, geology and palaeontology, the temperance, slavery and anti-tobacco movements, the opium trade, army and agricultural reforms, social reforms, photography, lace making, literature and fine art. The history and antiquities of the north-east of England are well represented, as are papers relating to the Trevelyans' travels and interests in the following places : the Shetland and Faroe Islands, Denmark, Greece, India, Ireland and Italy.

The Trevelyans' circle of friends and acquaintances and their interests in fine art, literature and science are well represented including letters from : John and Effie Ruskin, William Bell Scott, Dante Gabriel, William and Christina Rossetti, Walter Scott, Algernon Swinburne, William Holman Hunt, Thomas Woolner, Alexander Munro, George Cruikshank, Jane and Thomas Carlyle, John Payne Collier, Sir Henry Acland, James Young Simpson, Louis Agassiz, Sir Roderick Murchison, William Buckland, George Combe, W.E. Gladstone, Mark Pattison, William Fox Talbot, William Wilberforce and Anthony Panizzi.

The collection also includes printed pamphlets and ephemera relating to a variety of subjects. The miscellaneous additions include letters and diaries of the Trevelyans (1812-1815, and 1847) and additional letters to and from them both. There is also material relating to the extended Trevelyan family, including the Woodhouse, Jermyn and Wyndham families.

Administrative / Biographical History

Walter Calverley Trevelyan (1797-1879) was born in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1797 and was the son of Sir John Trevelyan (1761-1846), fifth baronet of Nettlecombe and second baronet of Wallington and Maria Wilson Trevelyan, daughter of Sir Thomas Spencer Wilson.

He was educated at Harrow and then University College, Oxford, graduating in 1820. At Oxford he studied geology under William Buckland and he continued these studies in Edinburgh after his graduation. He was elected a fellow of the Geological Society in 1817 and later became a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He was knowledgeable in botany and geology, as well as in fields such as science, archaeology and antiquities and helped John Hodgson with the compilation of his History of Northumberland. In 1846 he succeeded to his estates in Northumberland and the south-west of England, but it was not until 1852 that the majority of his time was spent at the Northumberland estate at Wallington which both he and his wife preferred.

Trevelyan became a phrenologist in 1822 and pursued its aims throughout his life. As a phrenologist he became interested in the introduction of state education for all to prevent crime, and the opposition to various things including capital punishment, alcohol, tobacco and opium. This manifested itself in many ways, particularly in the development of his estate at Wallington and in the resort of Seaton in Devon. He was a member of various societies and held the presidency of the United Kingdom Alliance for the Suppression of Liquor Traffic and of the National Temperance Society.

He married Paulina Jermyn (1816-1866) in 1835, the daughter of Revd Dr George Bitton Jermyn of Hawkedon, Suffolk. Paulina was known as Pauline throughout her life and grew up at Swaffham Prior near Cambridge where her capacity for knowledge was noted by the learned friends of her father's. She first met Trevelyan at a meeting of the British Association in 1833 where she was already a noted botanist and naturalist. She was an incredibly intelligent woman whose mind had the capacity to remember huge amounts of information. She brought Trevelyan into contact with a wide circle of friends, many of whom were connected to, or part of, the Pre-Raphaelite Group; the closest of these being John and Effie Ruskin.

When the Trevelyans moved to Wallington in 1852, the improvements of the house and gardens at Wallington reflected the closeness of these friendships and the house was refurbished in a Pre-Raphaelite style, culminating in a fresco on the walls of the newly covered central courtyard which was painted by William Bell Scott. Both Trevelyans were patrons of the fine arts and this not only included the fresco paintings at Wallington, but also included the use of crafts people in the re-laying of house and grounds. WC Trevelyan was a great collector and formed a fine collection of books and specimens of natural history and ethnology. Both he and his wife were great travellers. Trevelyan's first taste of travel was in 1821 when he visited the Faroe Islands to study their geology, and between 1835 and 1846 he and his wife travelled extensively in Southern Europe.

Pauline Trevelyan died at Neuchtel in 1866. In April 1867 Trevelyan became engaged to Laura Capel Lofft and they were married in the September of that year. When Trevelyan died in March 1879, Laura's death quickly followed.

Trevelyan published many articles in journals and also edited a long work on the Trevelyan papers which was published by the Camden Society (1857) and co-edited by John Payne Collier.

Arrangement

The papers have been arranged mainly in chronological order with the correspondence fitted into the chronological scheme.

  • WCT 1-255, 266-7, 273-4, 280, 294, 305-10 Correspondence : Family, general and specific
  • WCT 256-265 Journals
  • WCT 268-272 Diaries
  • WCT 275-288 Printed leaflets and scientific material
  • WCT 289-292 Legal and financial papers
  • WCT 295-299, 312-13 Scrapbooks and bound volumes
  • WCT 300-4, 311 Material relating to Northumberland
  • WCT 314-333 Miscellaneous additions

Conditions Governing Access

Access is open to bona fide researchers; appointment in advance and proof of identity required.

Conditions Governing Use

Reproduction:

The Trevelyan Trustees have agreed to the reproduction of up to 12 items from the papers for educational and private research purposes, provided the condition of the document does not prevent copying. Alternatively, photographic or digital images can be produced for educational and private research purposes. Please contact the Special Collections Librarian for further advice (email: lib-specenq@ncl.ac.uk)

Copyright:

Permission to make published use of any material from Special Collections must be sought in writing from the Special Collections Librarian (email: lib-specenq@ncl.ac.uk) and from the Trustees of the Trevelyan Papers. The library will assist with contacting the Trustees, but the responsibility to obtain copyright clearance rests with the user.

Acquisition Information

Deposited in the University Library in 1967 with later additions (WCT 314-333) made between 1986-1994.

Other Finding Aid

Catalogue to the papers, produced in conjunction with the Historical Manuscripts Commission in 1973, available in the Enright Reading Room ref. : WCT; National Register of Archives ref.: NRA 12238 Trevelyan.

The catalogue has indexes to subject, person and place names.

Bibliography

Letters to Pauline, Lady Trevelyan by Algernon Charles Swinburne. London : Wise, 1916.

A Pre-Raphaelite Circle by Raleigh Trevelyan. London : Chatto and Windus, 1978.

Reflections of a friendship : John Ruskin's letters to Pauline Trevelyan, 1848-1866 edited by Virginia Surtees. London : Allen and Unwin, 1979.

Existence/Location of Originals

University of Kansas Kenneth Spencer Research Library : Journals and sketch books of Lady Pauline Jermyn Trevelyan (1827-1865) with an additional journal by Walter C Trevelyan (1841-1842) and some other papers.

Subjects

Agriculture England Northumberland History
Antismoking movement
Botany
Education Great Britain
Geology
Lace and lace making Great Britain
Photography History
Temperance Great Britain
Antislavery movements
Social reformers Great Britain
Voyages and travels

Personal Names

Trevelyan Walter Calverley 1797-1879 Sir 6th Baronet Naturalist
Trevelyan Pauline d 1866 wife of Sir Walter Trevelyan
Trevelyan John 1761-1846 Sir 5th Baronet
Trevelyan George Otto 1838-1928 Sir 2nd Baronet Statesman and Historian
Trevelyan Charles Edward 1807-1886 Sir Knight Governor of Madras
Scott William Bell 1811-1890 Poet and Painter
Rossetti Dante Gabriel 1828-1882 Painter and Poet
Ruskin John 1819-1900 Author Artist and Social Reformer

Geographical Names

Northumberland (England) Antiquities
Northumberland (England) History
England, North East Social life and customs
Shetland (Scotland)
Faroe Islands
India
Ireland
Italy

Charles Philips Trevelyan Papers

Reference Number(s)GB 186 CPT
Dates of Creation1870-1962
Language of Material English.
Physical Description 30 linear metres. [The papers were recently conserved which increased the physical size of the collection]

Scope and Content

The Charles Philips Trevelyan Papers cover a diverse array of subjects, but do in the main reflect his lifelong interest in radical politics and socialism.

There is a large amount of correspondence both to Trevelyan and his wife, but also to other members of the family, including George Otto and Caroline Philips Trevelyan. The correspondence includes letters written in 1898 whilst Trevelyan was travelling in America and Australia with Sidney and Beatrice Webb, early letters between Trevelyan and his wife and some letters concerning local Northumbrian issues. However the largest part of the correspondence is political and personal in nature and covers many issues of contemporary interest to Trevelyan including education, electioneering, socialism, countryside access, both world wars and the Union of Democratic Control.

The collection also includes notebooks, and bound volumes of press cuttings, commencing in 1894 which mainly consist of articles and speeches by Trevelyan, as well as printed editions of his speeches. The political and personal correspondence in the papers includes letters from Winston Churchill, Beatrice and Sidney Webb, James Ramsey MacDonald, Phil Price, Walter Runciman, Bertrand Russell, Herbert Samuel and ED Morel and other members of the UDC. The papers also contain letters from Lady Trevelyan's parents which are also of interest, in particular from her mother who was a novelist, playwright, essayist and writer of children's stories. Her theatrical interests spilled over into her son-in-law's family, resulting in letters in the archive from George Bernard Shaw, Sybil Thorndike, Lewis Casson and Elizabeth Robins.

The Extra Series consists of a substantial quantity of correspondence between Trevelyan and his wife covering almost fifty years from 1904-1954. The papers also include correspondence between Trevelyan and his parents and immediate family as well as some of Lady Trevelyan's correspondence. There are also some notebooks, 1892-1902 and c.1914 and material written whilst Trevelyan was still at school and of University age, 1884-1891. Lady Trevelyan's detailed diaries for the years 1892-1917, in which can be found accounts of her social life, courtship, marriage, the birth of her children and her activities as a political wife are also in the Extra Series as well as a series of letters from GM Trevelyan to his brother CP Trevelyan.

Administrative / Biographical History

Sir Charles Philips Trevelyan, born in 1870, was the son of the historian and Liberal politician Sir George Otto Trevelyan and Lady Caroline Trevelyan (ne Philips). He was educated at Harrow and Trinity College Cambridge, graduating in 1892 and after a short spell working in Ireland as private secretary to the Viceroy, Lord Haughton, he returned to England and decided upon a career in politics. He entered Parliament as the representative of Elland in Yorkshire, but was not appointed to a ministerial position until 1908 when he became Secretary to the Board of Education in Asquith's Government. Later, with the outbreak of the First World War, his belief that Britain should have remained neutral led to his resignation from the Government and to his becoming a founder member of the anti-war Union of Democratic Control. His arguments throughout the war that peace ought to be negotiated with Germany, allied to his increasingly left-wing views, were the cause of his crushing defeat in the General Election at the end of 1918, in which he stood as an Independent. He then joined the Independent Labour Party, an action unheard of at that time from a man of his upbringing and class and a member of a land-owning family. In 1922 he was re-elected to Parliament for Newcastle Central and in 1924 was appointed Minister for Education in the first Labour Government. However over the next few years disillusionment with his party set in and in 1931, he resigned from politics in order to concentrate on running his estate, Wallington in Northumberland. A few years later, he again provoked shock amongst his peers by announcing that he intended to bequeath Wallington to the National Trust, on the principle that it should belong to the nation rather than to an individual. He retained a life interest in the property and the Trust did not assume full control until after his death in 1958.

Trevelyan was a prolific writer of speeches and articles during his lifetime, many of which exist as printed pamphlets within the collection. He published some longer works which include : From liberalism to Labour (1921) and a history of the family seat Wallington its history and treasures (1932).

Trevelyan married Mary (Molly) Katherine Bell, the half sister of Gertrude Bell (whose papers are also held at Newcastle University Library) in 1904. Her father was Sir Hugh Bell, an ironmaster on the Tees, and her mother was Florence Bell (ne Olliffe), whose At the works : a study of a manufacturing town (1907), a classic of social history, has recently been republished. Lady Mary Trevelyan was born in 1881 and was the youngest of three children from her father's second marriage and although not educated formally, she educated herself to a large degree through her own reading.

Whilst Parliament was in session they lived in Great College Street, London, but at other times they lived at Cambo House on the Wallington estate, until they moved into the hall in 1928. Lady Trevelyan was very involved in Trevelyan's political life, particularly in his early days as a politician - supporting him at rallies, election nights and other political duties. She was accepting of his ideals, and although she did not necessarily share all of them, she was certainly highly supportive of him during their lives together. From an early stage in her marriage, Lady Trevelyan became involved in the community in Northumberland, particularly in Cambo, where she knew the estate workers and was involved in village activities, committees and in the governance of the village school, which some of her own children attended.

When the estate passed to Charles Trevelyan, they quickly ensured improvements on the estate and hall were made, this included the repairs and improvements to the tenants' houses which Lady Trevelyan planned and oversaw.

Between them they had six children. The baronetcy passed to George Lowthian in 1958, and then to the youngest of the family, Geoffrey, after George's death in 1996.

Lady Trevelyan remained at Wallington until her death in 1966.

Arrangement

The papers have been arranged mainly in chronological order with the correspondence fitted into the chronological scheme.

Conditions Governing Access

Access is open to bona fide researchers; appointment in advance and proof of identity required.

Conditions Governing Use

Reproduction:

The Trevelyan Trustees have agreed to the reproduction of up to 12 items from the papers for educational and private research purposes, provided the condition of the document does not prevent copying. Alternatively, photographic or digital images can be produced for educational and private research purposes. Please contact the Special Collections Librarian for further advice (email: lib-specenq@ncl.ac.uk)

Copyright:

Permission to make published use of any material from Special Collections must be sought in writing from the Special Collections Librarian (email: lib-specenq@ncl.ac.uk) and from the Trustees of the Trevelyan Papers. The library will assist with contacting the Trustees, but the responsibility to obtain copyright clearance rests with the user.

Acquisition Information

Main papers deposited in the University Library in 1967. Further deposits was made during the 1980's which include Lady Trevelyan's diaries, correspondence from the Bell family and letters from GM Trevelyan.

Other Finding Aid

Catalogue to the papers, produced in conjunction with the Historical Manuscripts Commission in 1973, available in the Enright Reading Room ref. : CPT; National Register of Archives ref.: NRA 12238 Trevelyan.

Catalogue to the CP Trevelyan Extra Series, catalogued in 1986, available in the Enright Reading Room ref.: CPT Ex.; National Register of Archives ref.: NRA 12238 Trevelyan

The catalogues have indexes to subject, person and place names.

Related Material

Papers held by Newcastle University Library :

Correspondence with Walter Runciman, 1898-1925 ref. WR.; National Register of Archives ref.: NRA 13873 Runciman.

Papers held by other repositories :

Manchester University : John Rylands Library : Correspondence with James Ramsey MacDonald ref. RMD/1/14/79-83; National Register of Archives ref. : NRA 42560 Macdonald.

House of Lords Record Office: the Parliamentary Archives : Correspondence with Herbert Samuel, 1896-1945 ref. : A/14 19, 155/2 7 11; National Register of Archives ref. : NRA 11187 Samuel.

Hull University : Brynmor Jones Library : Correspondence with ED Morel and the Union of Democratic Control, ref. DDC; National Register of Archives ref. : NRA 13535 Democratic Control.

Gloucestershire Record Office : Correspondence with M Philips Price ref. D5755; National Register of Archives ref. : NRA 30262 Price.

Bibliography

Letters from North America and the Pacific, 1898 with a foreword by Leonard Woolf. London : Chatto and Windus 1969.

C.P. Trevelyan 1870-1958 : portrait of a radical. By A.J.A. Morris. Belfast : Blackstaff Press, 1977.

Women, marriage and politics 1860-1914. By Pat Jalland. Oxford : Clarendon press, 1986.

The women's domain : women in the English country house. By Trevor Lummis and Jan Marsh. London : Viking Press, 1990.

Subjects

Education Great Britain
Estates (Law) England
Politicians Correspondence

Personal Names

Trevelyan Charles Philips 1870-1958 Sir 3rd Baronet Politician
Trevelyan Mary Katherine 1881-1966 Lady
Asquith Herbert Henry 1852-1928 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith statesman
Baldwin Stanley 1867-1947 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley statesman
Bell Thomas Hugh 1844-1931 Sir 2nd Baronet Yorkshire industrialist and politician
Bell Florence 1851-1930 Lady
Macdonald James Ramsay 1866-1937 Statesman
Morel Edmund Dene 1873-1924 MP Author and Journalist
Price Morgan Philips 1885-1973 MP and Journalist
Richmond Herbert William 1871-1946 Sir Knight Admiral Master of Downing College Cambridge
Runciman Walter 1870-1949 1st Viscount Runciman statesman
Samuel Herbert Louis 1870-1963 1st Viscount Samuel statesman
Webb Sidney James 1859-1947 Baron Passfield statesman
Webb Beatrice Potter 1858-1943

Corporate Names

Liberal Party (Great Britain)
Labour Party (Great Britain)
Union of Democratic Control 1914 - 1966

Geographical Names

Northumberland (England)