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GRG - The George Gissing Collection
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The George Gissing Collection

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This material is held at The University of Manchester Library
Reference Number(s) GB 133 GRG
Dates of Creation 1870-1999
Name of Creator Gissing George Robert 1857-1903 Novelist
Language of Material English
Physical Description 3 subfonds; 384 items.
Location Collection available at John Rylands Library, Deansgate.

Scope and Content

The collection contains significant materials relating to George Gissing's life and works. It comprises manuscript material, correspondence and an important collection of printed books, including both presentation copies of his own works and the works of others from his own library. There is also a significant amount of twentieth-century correspondence and ephemera relating to the collecting of Gissing material.

The manuscript material includes: an extract from a boyhood diary, written when Gissing was twelve years old; an essay on poetry written whilst he was studying at Owens College, Manchester; and the final leaves of his unfinished novel, Veranilda. Of the autograph letters in the collection, there is a series of particularly interesting letters to his sister Ellen Gissing, penned whilst he was struggling to make a living in London during the early 1880s. There are also later autograph letters to friends and literary contacts, including Morley Roberts, Henry Hick, James Payn, Henry Heaton Sturmer and Elie Halpérine-Kaminsky, amongst others. There is also a significant number of letters to Gissing from other individuals, including J.M. Barrie, John Morley, Butler Clarke, Edmund Gosse, Frederic Harrison, and H.G. Wells. The collection also includes a set of leather-bound prize volumes of Virgil, which Gissing received from Owens College, and signed presentation copies of his books, including In the Year of Jubilee, Thyrza and Demos, and his major critical work on Charles Dickens.

The collection contains some material relating to the wider Gissing family. This includes a commonplace book belonging to Gissing's father, Thomas Waller Gissing; a manuscript account of an Easter ramble written by his brother William; and an interesting series of letters exchanged between Gissing's brother Algernon (and subsequently Gissing's son, Alfred) with various booksellers, regarding the sale of Gissing material.

There is some secondary material and ephemera relating to various events, including a 1971 exhibition of Gissing material and the unveiling of the Greater London Council's Blue Plaque for Gissing. There is also a series of photographs of his family and friends and a selection of postcards from places he visited during his lifetime.

The collection has major research potential for literary and biographical studies of George Gissing. It also has great relevance to those interested in the workings of the nineteenth-century book trade, and in the reception of Gissing and the collecting of Gissing in the twentieth century.

Administrative / Biographical History

The novelist George Robert Gissing was born on 27 November 1857 at 55 Westgate, Wakefield, West Yorkshire. He was the eldest son of Thomas Waller Gissing (1829-1870), a pharmaceutical chemist, amateur botanist and writer, and his wife, Margaret Bedford (1832-1913). He had four siblings: William (1859-1880), a music teacher who died of consumption; Algernon (1860-1937), a rather prolific, though unsuccessful, novelist; and two spinster sisters, Margaret (1863-1930) and Ellen (1867-1983). His sisters, known as Madge and Nellie, remained in Wakefield for most of their lives, running a school there for a time, before becoming responsible for the raising of Gissing's two children by his second wife, Edith.

As a child Gissing was widely read and in his studies he was very much influenced and encouraged by his father, Thomas Waller Gissing. Elected to Wakefield municipal council in 1867, his father was a prominent figure in local political and social circles. He believed strongly in the power of education and culture, and was himself the author of several books, including: Margaret and Other Poems (1855), The Ferns and Fern Allies of Wakefield and its Neighbourhood (1862) and Materials for a Flora of Wakefield and its Neighbourhood (1867). In his capacity as a chemist he also contributed to journals such as Phytologist and the Pharmaceutical Journal.

Gissing began his formal schooling sometime after 1863. He attended the Unitarian School at Back Lane, Wakefield, first under the tutorship of Mary Susan Milner and subsequently the in Reverend Joseph Harrison's Collegiate School. Gissing thrived at school. He won many prizes and from a young age he became the focus for his family's social aspirations. After the death of his father in 1870, Gissing was sent, along with his brothers, to Lindow Grove, a Quaker boarding school at Alderley Edge, Cheshire. Here Gissing soon established a reputation for hard work and proved himself an apt student. At the 1872 Oxford local examinations, he was passed first in the Manchester district and twelfth in the whole of England. He was awarded free tuition at Owens College, Manchester, for three years. Owens College was established in 1851 in Richard Cobden's house on Quay Street. The College was affiliated to the University of London, and students who successfully completed a two-year course at Manchester had the opportunity to take external London degrees. Owens College moved to its present site on Oxford Road in 1873. In 1880 Owens College became the first constituent of the federal Victoria University, to be joined in 1884 and 1887 by Liverpool and Leeds respectively. In 1903 the federal university was disbanded and Owens College became the Victoria University of Manchester.

During his first few years at Owens, Gissing continued to board at Alderley Edge, acting as a pupil-teacher in the school, and travelling daily into Manchester to attend college. At Owens, Gissing soon developed a reputation as a rather distinguished student, winning many prizes in the humanities. His successes, which are recorded in the calendars of the College, included: winning the English poem prize for his poem 'Ravenna' in 1873, coming first in exhibitions in both English and Latin at the intermediate BA examination of the University of London in 1874 and winning the Shakespeare Scholarship in 1875.

Due to an unfortunate turn of events, however, Gissing's academic success was cut short. In 1875 he moved to Manchester, where he became acquainted with a girl of the streets, Marianne Helen Harrison, also known as Nell (1858-1888). In his attempts to supplement his scholarship to provide financially for them both, he was caught stealing from the cloakroom of Owens College on 31 May 1876. Following a meeting of the College Senate on 7 June, all of Gissing's awards were removed and he was summarily dismissed from the College. He was brought before magistrates, convicted and sentenced to one month's imprisonment with hard labour, which he served at Belle Vue Prison, Manchester.

Gissing's movements following his immediate release from prison are not clear, but by September he had sailed for America, where he took up a temporary teaching position at Waltham High School, Massachusetts. In March 1877 he travelled to Chicago, where he supported himself by writing short stories for local newspapers, and he later moved to New York where he worked for a time as a photographer's assistant. His experiences in America, although largely brief and unsuccessful, are echoed in chapter twenty-eight of his novel New Grub Street (1891), in which he recounts his experience of living destitute for several days on handfuls of peanuts from a street-seller.

In October 1877 Gissing borrowed money from his brother Algernon and returned to England. On his return he took up residence in London with Nell and found work as a clerk at St John's Hospital in Leicester Square. Almost immediately he began to write, producing several works that were to remain unpublished, completing in 1879 what was later to be his first published novel, Workers in the Dawn. On 27 October 1879 he and Nell were married and during this same year Gissing met Eduard Bertz, a German intellectual who was to become a lifelong friend. In 1880, after it was rejected by several publishers, Gissing paid for the publication of Workers in the Dawn from the proceeds of a small family inheritance. This novel, a failure at the time, depicts working-class London life through the eyes of a young idealist who struggles against conflicting social and artistic commitments. At this time Gissing became acquainted with the author and positivist, Frederic Harrison (1831-1923), who introduced Gissing to a number of literary men and engaged him as tutor to his two small sons.

By 1883 Gissing's associations with his wife, whose disturbed, alcoholic existence was to end in her premature death in a Lambeth slum in 1888, had all but ended and he was working on another novel, The Unclassed. This was a stark and realistic portrayal of London slums, published in 1884 by Chapman and Hall. In 1884 Gissing was working on his first novel of the middle classes, Isabel Clarendon (1886), and was living comfortably for the first time in his adult life. Through his widening social circle he had acquired more pupils and had met and stayed with the Gaussen family, of Broughton Hall, Lechlade in Gloucestershire. This family, with whom Gissing was to remain in long-term contact, spent the season in London and were his first direct experience of an upper-class household, upon which he drew for his novels about middle-class life. In 1885 Gissing moved to 7K Cornwall Residences, Marylebone, where he was to spend the next six years of his life. At this time he was working on A Life's Morning (1888) and Demos (1886), the first book to bring him any real success. In 1886 he reached a semblance of stability as an author when Smith, Elder & Co. became his main publishers. The late 1880s saw him make a return to the proletarian novel with Thyrza (1887), his most sympathetic portrayal of the working classes, and The Nether World (1889), the darkest and last of his works on London poverty. In 1888 and 1889 Gissing travelled extensively in France, Italy and Greece. On 25 February 1891 he married Edith Alice Underwood (1867-1917), with whom he went on to have two children, Walter (1891-1916), who was killed on the Somme, and Alfred (1896-1975). This second marriage was no more successful than his first. Edith, whose behaviour was often hysterical and irrational, proved a difficult wife and by 1897 they had separated. By 1902 Edith had been confined to an asylum.

Despite his difficult domestic circumstances, the early 1890s were artistically very productive for Gissing. He published his satire The Emancipated in 1890, and in the following year New Grub Street, his classic novel on the commercialization of literature and the rise of mass education. Of his next three novels, Born in Exile (1892) dealt with the conflict between science and religion that was surfacing at the time, while Denzil Quarrier (1892) and The Odd Women (1893) were concerned with the education and emancipation of women.

It was in 1893 that Gissing met Clara Collet (1860-1948), an educated women and one of the first to have a distinguished career in government. She became his confidante and remained a loyal friend until Gissing's death in 1903. His other novels from this period include In the Year of Jubilee (1894), Eve's Ransom (1895), Sleeping Fires (1895), The Paying Guest (1895), The Whirlpool (1897) and The Town Traveller (1898), the most Dickensian of his novels. During these years, inhibited by domestic circumstances and a need to supplement his income, Gissing also spent much of his time in the production of a series of short stories. These were published collectively in Human Odds and Ends (1898) and several posthumous volumes.

As Gissing's fame grew, so did his association with a number of well-known figures in the journalistic and literary worlds, notably C.K. Shorter, Henry Norman, John Davidson, Thomas Hardy, J.M. Barrie, Edmund Gosse, and Edward Clodd. During 1897, he travelled to Italy, where he wrote his first critical work Charles Dickens: a Critical Study, a book which was published a year later in 1898 and remains an authoritative and important study of Dickens. Later that year, he travelled south, recording experiences that became his travel book By the Ionian Sea (1901), and collecting material for his long-planned sixth-century historical romance, Veranilda, which was published posthumously in 1904.

In 1898 Gissing met the woman with whom he was to spend his last years. Gabrielle Fleury (1868-1954) was a middle-class Frenchwoman who wrote to him seeking permission to translate New Grub Street. In 1899 they moved to France and after some time settled near the Basque villages of Ciboure, near St Jean-de-Luz and Ispoure, near St Jean-Pied-de-Port. During these years, happy though plagued by illness, Gissing wrote The Crown of Life (1899), Our Friend the Charlatan (1901) and the last of his novels of modern life, Will Warburton, which was published posthumously in 1905.

In 1903 Gissing was working on his long-planned historical romance, Veranilda, but he was never to complete it. George Robert Gissing died of myocarditis on 28 December 1903, aged 46. He was buried at the cemetery at St Jean-de-Luz on 30 December 1903.

Information primarily sourced from: Pierre Coustillas, 'Gissing, George Robert (1857-1903)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. By permission of Oxford University Press -


The collection has been arranged into three subfonds:

  • GRG/1: The Papers of George Gissing and his family;
  • GRG/2: Papers relating to George Gissing and his works;
  • GRG/3: Correspondence from J.G. Black to George Gissing (originally part of the University Archives).

The overall arrangement of the archive is as follows:

  • GRG/1: The Papers of George Gissing and his Family;
  • GRG/1/1: Correspondence;
  • GRG/1/1/1: Letters from Gissing to Members of his Family;
  • GRG/1/1/2: Letters from George Gissing to Other Individuals;
  • GRG/1/1/3: Autograph Letters to George Gissing;
  • GRG/1/1/4: Letter from Algernon Gissing to Tom Bedford;
  • GRG/1/2: Manuscript Material;
  • GRG/2: Papers relating to George Gissing and his Works;
  • GRG/2/1: Correspondence relating to the Collecting of Gissing Material;
  • GRG/2/1/1: Letters from Algernon Gissing to Frank Redway, Bookseller;
  • GRG/2/1/2: Letters from Alfred Gissing and Arthur Young to Winifred Isaac;
  • GRG/2/1/3: Papers of Francis Stuart Burd, Collector;
  • GRG/2/1/4: Letters from Alfred Gissing to M.C. Richter, Bookseller;
  • GRG/2/1/5: Letter from Elkin Matthews Ltd, Booksellers, to the Book Den, California;
  • GRG/2/1/6: Correspondence between M.C. Richter, Bookseller, and Donald Wing, Yale University;
  • GRG/2/1/7: Correspondence between M.C. Richter, Gilboy's House of Books and Francis Stuart Burd;
  • GRG/2/1/8: Copy Letters from M.C. Richter to E. Joseph, Bookseller;
  • GRG/2/1/9: Correspondence between William Plomer and Chris Kohler;
  • GRG/2/1/10: Papers relating to the Acquisition of the Eduard Bertz Collection;
  • GRG/2/1/11: Correspondence between Chris Kohler and Alfred Gissing;
  • GRG/2/1/12: Correspondence between Chris Kohler and Francis Stuart Burd;
  • GRG/2/1/13: Manuscript Accounts of George Gissing;
  • GRG/2/2: Photographic Material;
  • GRG/2/2/1: Photographs of the Gissing Family and Friends;
  • GRG/2/2/2: Photographs of Gissing's Wakefield;
  • GRG/2/2/3: Photographs of Gissing's London;
  • GRG/2/2/4: Photographs of Gissing's Residences in England;
  • GRG/2/2/5: Photographs of Gissing's France;
  • GRG/2/3: Printed Material and Ephemera relating to Gissing;
  • GRG/2/3/1: Lithographs and Posters;
  • GRG/2/3/2: Postcards;
  • GRG/2/3/3: Printed Exhibition Catalogue;
  • GRG/2/3/4: Booksellers' Catalogues and Lists;
  • GRG/2/3/5: Printed Article 'Poems by Thomas W. Gissing';
  • GRG/2/3/6: Enitharmon Press Gissing Series: Galley Proofs;
  • GRG/2/3/7: 'The Rediscovery of George Gissing' Exhibition;
  • GRG/2/3/8: TV and Radio Adaptations of Works by Gissing;
  • GRG/2/3/9: Papers relating to the Gissing Commemorative Blue Plaque;
  • GRG/2/3/10: Miscellaneous Photocopies;
  • GRG/3: Letters from John George Black to George Gissing.

Conditions Governing Access

The collection is open to any accredited reader.

Conditions Governing Use

Photocopies and photographic copies of material in the archive can be supplied for private study purposes only, depending on the condition of the documents.

Prior written permission must be obtained from the Library for publication or reproduction of any material within the archive. Please contact the Head of Special Collections, John Rylands Library, 150 Deansgate, Manchester, M3 3EH.

Acquisition Information

The bulk of the collection was purchased by the John Rylands University Library in 2005 from the antiquarian bookseller, Chris C. Kohler, of Dorking, Surrey, with financial assistance from the Heritage Lottery Fund. GRG/3 was formerly part of the archive of The University of Manchester.

Custodial History

The George Gissing Collection is an artificial collection of printed books and manuscripts assembled by the bookseller Chris Kohler, of Dorking, Surrey. He started collecting Gissing material in 1964 at the age of 21, at the prompting of the well-known Gissing scholar Pierre Coustillas, who enquired whether he had anything in stock by the novelist. Coustillas himself had begun collecting in 1959. Kohler specialised in supplying Gissing books to his customers, while reserving some material for his own collection. He acquired material from other dealers, directly from private collectors and at auction. The present collection includes material illustrative of the process of buying, selling and collecting Gissing, not only by Kohler but also by dealers and collectors throughout the twentieth century: see GRG/2/1.

Other Finding Aids

The printed books within the George Gissing Collection have been separately catalogued in the Library's online book catalogue.

Related Material

A substantial number of printed books also form part of this collection. They include: signed presentation copies of Gissing's own novels; books from his own library; several volumes by his father, Thomas Waller Gissing; a series of Gissing's own copies of stories extracted from periodicals; and a range of critical works about Gissing. These items are not listed here: see the Library's online catalogue of printed books for further details of these volumes. In addition to the Gissing Collection, The Library has other substantial Gissing holdings. The Special Collections Division of the UML holds a number of Gissing first editions, some forty editions published during his lifetime and many examples of his magazine fiction and occasional writing. The library also holds biographical, bibliographical and critical material relating to Gissing and his works.

Further papers of and relating to George Gissing are held by numerous other institutions. The British Library holds letters from Gissing to Dr Henry Hick, 1895-1903 (Add MS 49993), and letters to his son, Walter, 1897-1902; The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds holds letters to William Hudson, 1892-1903, and a fragment of a MS of A Life's Morning; Warwick University: Modern Records Centre has letters to Clara Collet, 1893-1903 (MSS.29 - see also copies in this collection GRG/2/3/10/3); The National Library of Scotland, Manuscript Collections holds Gissing's MS essay on Robert Burns (for a copy see GRG/2/3/10/5/1 below); and the Alexander Turnbull Library at the National Library of New Zealand holds the MS of Our Friend the Charlatan amongst other literary papers. Other letters are held by Leeds University Library, Special Collections.

A substantial amount of Gissing correspondence and literary papers is held at institutions in the United States: The Carl H. Pforzheimer Library, New York; The Manuscripts and Archives Division of New York Public Library; The Beinecke Library, Yale University; The Huntington Library, California; The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Centre Library, University of Texas at Austin; The Morgan Library, New York; Colgate University Library, New York; The Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York; Dartmouth College Library, New Hampshire; The Van Pelt Library, University of Pennsylvania; University of Illinois Library, Urbana; and Boston Public Library, Boston.

Preferred Citation

The George Gissing Collection, GRG/1/1/1 [etc.], The University of Manchester Library.


English literature

Personal Names

Gissing George Robert 1857-1903 Novelist
Gissing Algernon 1860-1937 Novelist
Gissing Thomas Waller 1829-1970 Pharmaceutical Chemist
Collet Clara Elizabeth 1860-1948 civil servant and author
Wells Herbert George 1866-1946 Novelist

Geographical Names

Wakefield, Yorkshire

Cataloguing Info

Title The George Gissing Collection 1870-1999
Sub-title A hand-list of the collection
Author Finding aid compiled by Jo Klett.
Publication The John Rylands Library
150 Deansgate, Manchester, M3 3EH, England, tel.: +44 (0)161 275-3764, fax: +44 (0)161 834-5574,

© The John Rylands University Library, The University of Manchester 2008

Edition 1st edition
Creation Finding aid encoded in EAD 2002 by Jo Klett using Epic Editor v.4.1, 10 November 2006.
Descriptive Rules Finding aid compiled according to JRUL's Guide to the listing of archives (3rd edition, 2004), which is based on the General International Standard Archival Description (ISAD(G)), second edition.
Language Usage Finding aid written in English.
January 2008
  • 1. Finding aid revised by John Hodgson, Keeper of Manuscripts and Archives, using XMLSpy 2006.

Papers of George Gissing and his Family

Reference Number(s) GB 133 GRG/1
Dates of Creation 1870-1937
Physical Description 2 series; 45 items.

Scope and Content

Papers of George Gissing and his family comprise: ten letters from George Gissing to members of his family (GRG/1/1/1); seventeen letters from George Gissing to other individuals (GRG/1/1/2); nine letters to George Gissing (GRG/1/1/3); a single letter from Algernon Gissing, brother of George, to Tom Bedford (GRG/1/1/4); and manuscript items such as pages from George Gissing's diary, an essay on poetry by George Gissing, manuscript verse, a draft of the unfinished novel Veranilda, the commonplace book of George's father, Thomas Waller Gissing, an account of an Easter ramble, a publisher's agreement, and a typescript copy of Alfred Gissing's article 'Gissing's Unfinished Romance' (GRG/1/2).


Reference Number(s) GB 133 GRG/1/1
Dates of Creation 1878-1903
Physical Description 4 subseries; 37 items.

Scope and Content

Correspondence comprises four subseries: ten letters from George Gissing to members of his family (GRG/1/1/1); seventeen letters from George Gissing to other individuals, including Herbert Heaton Sturmer, Henry William Massingham, Elie Halpérine-Kaminsky, Morley Roberts, Henry D. Davray, Bertram Waldrom Matz, Florence Popham, Wilkinson Sherren and James Payn (GRG/1/1/2); nine letters to George Gissing from, among others, John Morley, Edmund Gosse, John Davidson, Frederic Harrison, J.M. Barrie, Ann Ritchie and H.G. Wells (GRG/1/1/3); and a single letter from Algernon Gissing, brother of George, to Tom Bedford (GRG/1/1/4).

Letters from George Gissing to Members of his Family

Reference Number(s) GB 133 GRG/1/1/1
Dates of Creation 1880-1897
Physical Description 10 items.

Scope and Content

Ten letters from George Gissing to members of his family. GRG/1/1/1/1 is addressed to his sisters Ellen (Nellie or Nelly) and Margaret Gissing, and GRG/1/1/1/10 is to his son Walter. The remainder are to his sister Nellie/Nelly.


Reference Number(s) GB 133 GRG/1/1/1/1
Dates of Creation 20 Jun 1880

Scope and Content

Letter from George Gissing to his sisters Ellen and Margaret Gissing. It opens: "Dear sisters" and enquires of general family matters: "you must both of you write to me before long. From Madge [Margaret] I shall expect a volume, descriptive of her travels in barbarous lands; if it is nicely written we might perhaps have it published."

Dated at 5 Hanover St, Islington.


Published in P.F. Mattheisen, A.C. Young, P. Coustillas (eds), The collected letters of George Gissing, volume one, 1863-1880 (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1990), pp. 283-4.


Reference Number(s) GB 133 GRG/1/1/1/2
Dates of Creation 3 Oct 1880

Scope and Content

Letter from George Gissing to Nellie [Ellen, later 'Nelly'], enquiring of her trip to Ilkley and discussing 'the new house'. He writes: "You who have only had one change of home in your whole life, cannot imagine what it means to look back upon some five & forty removals, - flittings, as I think they are called. No, you have had a happier time of it, & I trust will be equally comfortable as long as you live."

Dated at 5 Hanover St, Islington.


Published in P.F. Mattheisen, et al., The collected letters of George Gissing, volume one, 1863-1880 (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1990), pp. 301-2.


Reference Number(s) GB 133 GRG/1/1/1/3
Dates of Creation 30 Jan 1881

Scope and Content

Letter from George Gissing to Nellie. He enquires of her and gives news of his pupils: "I have now got for pupils four young ladies. The eldest is only fourteen, but they might each be taken for at least three years older than they are. I find them rather clever; we do English, History & Geography together. One of them is always reading Homer, & she tells me she would give anything to learn to read it in the original Greek. That is what you must do some day, mind that!"

Dated at 5 Hanover St, Islington.


Published in P.F. Mattheisen, et al., The collected letters of George Gissing, volume two, 1881-1885 (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1990), pp. 8-9.


Reference Number(s) GB 133 GRG/1/1/1/4
Dates of Creation 23 Nov 1881

Scope and Content

Letter from George Gissing to Nellie. Writing on his birthday, he thanks her for her letter and card: "It is all the present I desire, to hear from & know that you remember me sometimes, a cheering thought in the midst of this huge wilderness of a town, where no one has any friends, & where one doesn't even know by sight - a fact - the people who live in the same house. Struggling for a living in London is very much like holding yourself up after a shipwreck, first by one floating spar, then another... For people who are not anxious about to-morrow's dinner life in London is very fine; otherwise it is a cruel sort of business."

Dated at 15 Gower Place, London.


Published in P.F. Mattheisen, et al., The collected letters of George Gissing, volume two, 1881-1885 (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1990), pp. 65-6..


Reference Number(s) GB 133 GRG/1/1/1/5
Dates of Creation 3 Apr 1882

Scope and Content

Letter from George Gissing to Nellie. He writes of the death of the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882): "I like his poetry, can often read a little poem, & feel better for it. He is not very deep; by the side of the great poets he sinks into insignificance; yet there is a quiet & sunny atmosphere in his work which often refreshes when one is not in the humour for climbing the heights", and responds to her request for advice as to the reading of poetry: " Did you ever read [William] Cowper's "Task"? I think you would find it very enjoyable; I should like you to go carefully through it & let me have your opinion. Then I want you to read all [Oliver] Goldsmith's poetry. There is little of it but what there is, is perfect."

Dated at 29 Dorchester Place, Blandford Square, [London] N.W.


Published in P.F. Mattheisen, et al., The collected letters of George Gissing, volume two, 1881-1885 (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1990), pp. 77-8.