Contents [ printable ]

GB 102 CIM - China Inland Mission (Overseas Missionary Fellowship)

China Inland Mission (Overseas Missionary Fellowship)

What is this?
  • this Description
  • View XML | View Text
This material is held at School of Oriental and African Studies
Reference Number(s)GB 102 GB 102 CIM
Dates of Creation c.1834 - 1989
Language of Material English.
Physical Description 161 boxes, 394 volumes

Scope and Content

The collection comprises material of the China Inland Mission (CIM) including the minutes of the London Council (1872-1951); minutes of the Missio[apos ]s China Council (1886-1947 and 1951); various publications including Chinese Missionary Gleaner , (1853-1859), Chin[apos ]s Millions , (1875-1964), and Chinese Recorder , (1867-1933), and Overseas Missionary Fellowship papers (CIM/OMF) for the post 1950 period. In separate sections are the substantial papers of the mission's founder, James Hudson Taylor (CIM/JHT), which include some records (c.1850-1860) of the Chinese Evangelization Society, and material relating to the Chefoo Schools (CIM/CSP), founded by Hudson Taylor, including registers of pupils and papers of the Chefoo Schools Association. China Inland Mission private papers (CIM/PP) contains a varied selection of information on the lives of individual missionaries. They include the archive of Eric and Edith Liberty in China, the Philippines and Taiwan (1920's-1970); the papers of Miss Hettie Withers, a teacher in the Chefoo Gir[apos ]s School (1920's and 1930's); research papers of Frederick Howard Taylor into Chinese tribes, and the collection of papers by the Missio[apos ]s historian, A.J. Broomhall, for his work Hudson Taylor and Chin[apos ]s Open Century . In addition there is a large photographic collection (CIM/PHOTO) including the official records of the China Inland Mission / Overseas Missionary Fellowship. This includes a series of photographs collected from missionaries in the field concerning medical work and scenes of life in China, Taiwan, Thailand and Tibet.

Administrative / Biographical History

The China Inland Mission was officially set up in 1865 under the direction of Rev. James Hudson Taylor and William Thomas Berger. Refusing to appeal for funds but relying on unsolicited contributions, the goal of the China Inland Mission (CIM) was the interdenominational evangelization of China's inland provinces. Missionaries were to have no guaranteed salary and were expected to become closely involved in the Chinese way of life. The first missionary party, including Taylor, left for China on the Lammermui in May 1866. They reached Shanghai in September, and the first Mission base was established at Hangchow, Chekiang. Between 1866 and 1888, work was concentrated on the coastal provinces.

In 1868 the headquarters moved to Yangchow, which was better situated for beginning work in the interior. From its foundation, William Berger acted as Home Director while Taylor, as General Director, was in charge of the Mission's work in the field. Berge's retirement in 1872 led to administrative changes with the formation of the London Council to deal with home affairs. The role of the London Council was to process applications and send new recruits to China, promote the work of the Mission at home and receive financial contributions. The China Department was headed by the General Director, who was advised by the General Council composed of senior missionaries including the Superintendents of provincial districts. The campaign to find volunteers was led by Taylor. He organised the departure of the popular Cambridge Seven in 1886 and that of the Hundred in 1888. In 1889, he was asked to address the Shanghai Missionary Conference, during which he made an appeal for 1,000 volunteers to join Chinese missions over the next five years. New recruits undertook a definite course of study and examination to become a missionary. Six months initial training covered Chinese language, geography, government, etiquette, religion and the communication of the Gospel. Trainees were then posted to an inland station where they were supervised by a senior missionary. After two years, successful candidates became junior missionaries, and after five years took responsibility for a station. Experienced missionaries were appointed over a number of districts within a province. The China Inland Mission underwent considerable growth and development in the years leading up to 1934, which saw the peak of its activity. In 1866, there were 24 workers at 4 mission stations. By its Jubilee year in 1915, there were 1,063 workers at 227 stations and by 1934, 1,368 workers at 364 stations throughout China. The CIM also reached parts of Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet and Upper Burma. In 1873 the headquarters of the Mission moved to Shanghai. In 1881 a school was established at Chefoo for the children of missionaries. From its inception, women played a crucial role in the CIM. From 1878, amidst much public criticism, Taylor permitted single women to work in the mission field. By 1882, the CIM listed 56 wives of missionaries and 95 single women engaged in the ministry. The success of the CIM also led to the establishment of Home Councils outside China. By 1950, there were Home Councils in England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Eire, Australia (1890), New Zealand (1894), South Africa (1943), Canada and the United States (North American Council established 1888), and Switzerland (1950). Several smaller missionary societies from Scandinavia and Germany also became connected with the CIM as associate missions. The CIM began its work just as China was becoming more open to foreigners, but missionaries still had to overcome considerable hostility. The CIM was particularly badly hit by the massacres of the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. The losses suffered during the Boxer Rebellion affected Taylor's health and he resigned officially in favour of D.E. Hoste in 1903. He died in 1905. In the years following 1934, war and revolution led to a decline in the number of CIM missionaries in China. During the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), missionaries remained at their station where they could, caring for refugees and organising welfare camps. Many were sent to the internment camps in Shanghai and Yangchow. In 1942 the headquarters were evacuated from Shanghai to escape the Japanese army, and temporarily re-located to Chungking. Staff moved back to Shanghai in 1945. At that time the civil war between the Nationalist and Communist forces intensified. Following the Communist victory in 1949 there was mounting suspicion against foreign missionaries, who were labelled as 'imperialist spies'. In 1950 the General Director decided that further work in China was impossible and ordered all CIM missionaries to leave. In 1951 a temporary headquarters was established at Hong Kong to oversee the withdrawal. The last CIM missionaries left China in 1953. The Mission directors met in Australia (Kalorama) to discuss the future of the CIM. Teams were appointed to survey the extent of the need of Chinese nationals outside China, particularly in South East Asia and Japan. At a conference held in Bournemouth, England, in November 1951, it was decided that the Mission should continue its work and missionaries were sent to new fields in Thailand, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia and Taiwan (later Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong). New headquarters were established in Singapore and the name was changed to the China Inland Mission Overseas Missionary Fellowship. At a meeting of the Mission Overseas Council held in October 1964, the name became the Overseas Missionary Fellowship (OMF). This acknowledged the additional need for work amongst non-Chinese nationals in the new fields of work. The structure of the Mission was altered so that non-western Christians could become full members and set up home councils in their own countries.

Home Councils were subsequently established in Japan (1965), Malaysia (1965), Singapore (1965), Hong Kong (1966), Philippines (1966), Germany (1967) and the Netherlands (1967). The General Director remained the head of the Mission, with the Overseas Director responsible for missionary activities in Asia, and Home Directors responsible for OMF activities in their own countries. Work retained a strong emphasis on evangelism, with support for literature programmes, medical services, linguistic work, student work and outreach. The OMF continues its work today. Further reading: Broomhall, A.J., Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century , (London, 7 volumes, 1981-1989); Guinness, G., The Story of the China Inland Mission , (London 1893); Lyall, L. A Passion for the Impossible , (London 1965);

Arrangement

The collection has been arranged into six main sections: China Inland Mission (CIM); Overseas Missionary Fellowship papers (CIM/OMF); James Hudson Taylor papers (CIM/JHT); personal and private papers (of individual missionaries) (CIM/PP); Chefoo Schools and Chefoo Schools Association (CIM/CSP), and China Inland Mission photographs (CIM/PHOTO). Each section is sub-divided, with material arranged in chronological order, or in the case of the personal and private papers, by the names of individual missionaries. China Inland Mission photographs are listed in a separate volume.

Conditions Governing Access

Unrestricted

Conditions Governing Use

Copyright with the Overseas Missionary Fellowship

Acquisition Information

Donated 1991-1994

Accruals

Possibility of accruals

Subjects

Missions
Chinese-Japanese War, 1894-1895
China History Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1901
Women

Personal Names

Taylor James Hudson 1832-1905 founder of the China Inland Mission
Berger William Thomas 1815-1899 founder of the China Inland Mission

Corporate Names

China Inland Mission
Chefoo Schools Association
Lammermuir (ship)

Geographical Names

Japan
Tibet
Indonesia
Taiwan
Malaysia
Thailand
Philippines

Cataloguing Info

Title China Inland Mission (Overseas Missionary Fellowship)
Revisions
15 June 2005
  • Catalogue record converted to EAD2002, May 2005.

China Inland Mission: Papers relating to the Chefoo School and the Chefoo Schools Association

Reference Number(s)GB 102 GB 102 CIM/CSP
Dates of Creation 1880-1999
Physical Description CIM/CSP (4 boxes) CIM/CSP Additional (5 boxes)

Scope and Content

The material comprises records of the original schools in China including school registers (1880-1950), lists of teachers, school papers, and copies of the school magazine The Chefusian (1928-1934). There is a run of the Chefoo Schools Association magazine Chefoo (1916-1999) and minute books of the Association (1908-1940, 1945-1960). Also includes notes on the history of the school and the China Inland Mission compiled by Fred H. Judd in the 1950s, and a copy of the publication Chefoo School, 1881-1951, by Gordon Martin. Photographs illustrate early scenes of the school and missionaries. Material on the internment of the school during World War II includes sketches, pictures and poems.

Administrative / Biographical History

The Chefoo School was established by the China Inland Mission - under James Hudson Taylor - at Chefoo (Yantai), Northern China, in 1880. Its aim was to provide an education for the children of missionaries and the business and diplomatic communities. The school began as an adjunct to a sanatorium for sick missionaries, but soon grew larger than the hospital itself. In 1881, Mr. W. L. Elliston began to teach the first three pupils (Fred, Ross and Edwin Judd). Between 1881 and 1886, the number of pupils grew to over 100, resident in three departments - the Boys, Girls and Preparatory School. In 1886 the Boys and Girls schools were separated. By 1894 the children of China Inland Mission workers alone numbered over 200 children. In 1895 a Preparatory School for children aged 5-10 was opened in premises owned by the Mission at Tong-Hsin, three miles away. In 1896 a new Boys School was built at Chefoo, and enlargements made to the Girls School, which was opened in 1898. By early 1900, the Preparatory school had moved closer to the main school once more. From 1909-1915, another Preparatory school operated in Kuling, Central China.

The name of the school was originally the Protestant Collegiate School. By 1908, China Inland Mission School was generally used. By 1947, Chefoo School had been adopted, referring to the style of education rather than the place.

Chefoo School was a Christian boarding school, run in accordance with the China Inland Mission's regime. Members of staff were required to be full members of the Mission. The curriculum came to be based on the British system, heavily weighted in favour of classical courses designed to prepare students for entrance to British universities including Oxford and Cambridge. There was also an emphasis on religious education. The Principal took prayers daily, and there were two Sunday services. There were four terms in the school year beginning in February, April, August and October. The school was also strong in sports such as football and rowing. A school magazine entitled The Chefusian began in 1928, and continued until 1942. Earlier attempts at a school magazine included Lux Tenebris in 1887, and The Magnet in the 1920's.

Head Masters at Chefoo included W. L. Elliston (1881-1886), H. L. Norris (1886-1889), Frank McCarthy (1895-1930), Pat Bruce (1930-1945), and Stanley Houghton (1947-1950). Under Pat Bruce, there were various innovations at Chefoo including the introduction of co-education in 1934; the construction of a new teaching and preparatory bloc in the same year; the creation of the Chefoo Orchestra in 1930; the teaching of Chinese Studies and the beginning of a Girl Guides company. In 1936, Chefoo School adopted the Chinese dolphin as its crest (designed by Theodore Hirst).

In 1937 Japan invaded China. Although the Japanese entered Chefoo in that year, British and American citizens were considered as 'neutrals'. The School routine thus continued as normal. This was to change in December 1941, with the Japanese assault on Pearl Harbour. Bruce was soon taken into custody and the Japanese Army took control of the school property. In November 1942, staff and remaining students were interned at the Temple Hill Japanese Internment Camp. In summer 1943, they were moved to Weihsien Internment Camp, where they remained until the end of the War in 1945. During the War, parts of Chefoo School were temporarily opened at Kiating (1941-1944), Kalimpong, India (1944-1946) and Shanghai (1946-1947).

Following the War and the occupation of North China by Communist forces, the School never returned to Chefoo. It was temporarily located at the China Inland Mission Headquarters in Shanghai. In 1947, the Mission purchased the Kuling American School and students and staff gradually returned. By the first summer, there were 126 students. By May 1949, Communist forces had occupied Kuling. The School continued under their observation until 1951. In 1951 the China Inland Mission decided to withdraw completely from China. Between February and April 1951, staff and students of Chefoo School withdrew to Hong Kong where missionary parents awaited their children. Chefoo School in China ceased to exist.

Following its withdrawal, the School was relocated in South East Asia. Chefoo Schools were established in Malaysia (1952-), Japan (1951-1998), the Philippines (1956-1981), Taiwan (1954-1961) and Thailand (1952-1954). Chefoo School Malaysia still operates under the Overseas Missionary Fellowship.

The Chefoo Schools Association was founded in 1908 to operate as an association for all former scholars and past and present members of staff of the Chefoo Schools. The magazine entitled Chefoo (organ of the Chefoo Schools Association) was also produced for the first time in 1908, and still continues today. The Association now has North American, Australian and New Zealand branches. The President of the Association (in 1998) is James H. Taylor III.

Further reading: Martin, G., Chefoo School, 1881-1951 , (Merlin Books Ltd., Devon, 1990).

Arrangement

The material in both the original and additional deposits has been arranged according to type. Broad categories include: school registers; school papers; publications (for Chefoo School and the Chefoo Schools Association); historical notes; photographs and albums; material relating to the internment of Chefoo School during World War II, and miscellaneous.

Conditions Governing Access

Unrestricted

Conditions Governing Use

Copyright with the Overseas Missionary Fellowship

Acquisition Information

Donated in 1994, with additional deposits in 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999

Accruals

Accruals expected

Other Finding Aid

Unpublished handlist for original deposit, with lists for additional deposits attached.

Related Material

Related Collections at SOAS: China Inland Mission [ref. CIM]

Subjects

Missions
War prisoners
Concentration camps
Missionary settlements

Personal Names

Taylor James Hudson 1832-1905 Founder of the China Inland Mission

Corporate Names

China Inland Mission
Chefoo Schools Association
Temple Hill Japanese Internment Camp China
Weihsien Internment Camp China

Geographical Names

Chefoo (China)
Shanghai (China)
Malaysia
Kalimpang (India)
Philippines

China Inland Mission: James Hudson Taylor's Papers

Reference Number(s)GB 102 GB 102 CIM/JHT
Dates of Creation c.1849-1937
Physical Description 19 boxes

Scope and Content

James Hudson Taylor bequeathed his personal papers to Frederick and Geraldine Taylor as material for the history of the China Inland Mission to be written by Geraldine, and she has made one or two deletions in some documents. The collection comprises large amounts of correspondence both personal and official; journals kept by Taylor for himself and for the Chinese Evangelization Society; Taylor's engagement diaries; reminiscences of missionaries; excerpts from contemporary newspapers; sundry administrative papers; notes on the development of candidate selection, and some papers brought in by Geraldine and Frederick Taylor to add to material for their books.

Administrative / Biographical History

James Hudson Taylor was born in Barnsley, North Yorkshire, on 21 May 1832. His family were enthusiastic Methodists, but Taylor became sceptical at an early age. However, at the age of 17 he was converted again to evangelical Christianity and decided to give his life to missionary work in China. Medical missionaries were urgently needed at that time and he underwent a form of medical apprenticeship in Hull and London under the guidance of the Chinese Evangelization Society, before leaving for south-east China as their representative in 1853, where he remained initially until 1860.

Taylor was based initially at Shanghai. On his move to Ningpo around 1857, he met Maria and Burella Dyer, daughters of the late Samuel Dyer (missionary with the London Missionary Society, 1827-1843). Both girls were teaching at the girls school in Ningpo, conducted by Mary Ann Aldersey. Maria Jane Dyer (1837-1870) and Taylor were married in 1858, despite Aldersley's opposition. Maria became an invaluable assistant to Taylor. When young women recruits arrived with the Mission she was able to train them in the Chinese vernacular language, Chinese culture and missionary work. The couple had eight children - Grace Dyer (1859-1867); Hubert Hudson (b 1861); Frederick Howard (b 1862, who with his wife Geraldine became the first Mission historians); Samuel Dyer (1864- 1870); Jane Dyer (born and died 1865); Maria (b 1867); Charles Edward (Tien pao, b 1868) and Noel (born and died 1870). Maria died shortly after giving birth to their last child in 1870. The four surviving children all became missionaries with the China Inland Mission.

In 1860, Taylor left the Chinese Evangelization Society and returned to England. He had an increasing concern for Chinese living in provinces untouched by missionary work. He expressed his growing vision in China's Spiritual Need and Claims , 1865. That same year, with limited financial resources he founded the China Inland Mission, together with William Thomas Berger. The first party of missionaries left for China on the 'Lammermuir' in 1866. Taylor became General Director of the Mission, based in the mission field. He also spent a great deal of time travelling to other countries to make China's needs known and to recruit new missionaries.

In 1871, he married Jenny Faulding (1843-1904), one of the original China Inland Mission party aboard the Lammermuir in 1866. She wholly supported Taylor in his work. In 1878, when he was obliged for administrative reasons to remain in England, she returned to China alone to lead other women in relief work in the severe Shanxi famine of 1877-1878. She was the first woman to travel deep into the interior, and her success strengthened Taylor's case for appointing women in pioneering roles. They had two surviving children, Ernest (b 1875) and Amy (b 1876). She continued to travel with her husband into their old age. She died of cancer in Switzerland, a year before Taylor's own death.

Taylor was made a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in 1864. He played a prominent part at the General Missionary Conferences in Shanghai in 1877 and 1890. He retired from administration of the China Inland Mission in 1901, officially resigning in favour of Hoste in 1903. He died in Changsha, Hunan, in 1905 and was buried in Chen-chiang, Kiangsu.

Further reading: Taylor, H. & Taylor, M.G., Hudson Taylor in Early Years , (1912), and Hudson Taylor and the China Inland Mission: The growth of a Work of God , (1919); Broomhall, M., Hudson Taylor: The Man Who Believed in God , (1929); Pollock, J., Hudson Taylor and Maria , (1962); Broomhall, A.J., Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century , (7 volumes, 1981-1989).

Arrangement

Some of the journals and letters are kept in bound volumes. The remaining material has been arranged into chronological sections as follows: -1853; 1854- 1856; 1857-1865; 1866-1870; 1871-1882; 1883-1886; 1887-1890; 1891-1898; 1899- 1905. General papers form a separate section.

Conditions Governing Access

Unrestricted

Conditions Governing Use

Copyright with Overseas Missionary Fellowship

Acquisition Information

Donated with the China Inland Mission papers, 1991-1994

Other Finding Aid

Part 1 of unpublished handlist; contains the list for James Hudson Taylor's papers.

Subjects

Missions
Famines

Personal Names

Taylor Maria Jane 1837-1870 Missionary with the China Inland Mission
Taylor Jenny 1843-1904 Missionary with the China Inland Mission
Aldersey Mary Ann 1797-1868 Missionary
Dyer Samuel 1804-1843 Missionary

Corporate Names

China Inland Mission
Chinese Evangelization Society
Lammermuir (ship)
General Missionary Conference Shanghai 1877
General Missionary Conference Shanghai 1890
Royal Geographical Society

Geographical Names

Ningbo (China)
Changsha (China)